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Body health

    6important vitamins and minerals for diabetics

    Aug 24, 2020

    Vitamins and minerals are very important for the normal functioning of the body and are required in minute quantities[1]. They are even more important for those who suffer from diabetes, as can alter the nutritional status of the individual [2]. 

    Certain subgroups of individuals with diabetes including the elderly, vegans, and pregnant and lactating women are at particular risk for such nutritional deficiencies [3]. 
    Diabetes is associated with increased oxidative stress, an underlying mechanism for inflammation [4]. This fact supports the use of antioxidant supplementation in diabetic patients to prevent long-term complications [5].

     However, if you are taking a multivitamin supplement, make sure it doesn’t interact with another medication.


    Here are some important vitamins and minerals which are useful for diabetics:


    1- Vitamin D:
    Vitamin D has a vital role in calcium metabolism and its deficiency may lead to some serious diseases such as cancer, diabetes, bone problems, and cardiovascular diseases [6].
     Vitamin D deficiency is linked to type I diabetes [7]. It can also aggravate glucose intolerance, linked to type II diabetes [8]. Vitamin D also has an active role in the functional regulation of the pancreas, especially beta cells [9]. 

    Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin upon sun exposure. Older people, who can’t efficiently make vitamin D are at more risk of having vitamin D deficiency. 

    2- Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):
    There is more risk of thiamin deficiency in individuals with both types I and type II diabetes mellitus [10] than normal individuals.
    Thiamine supplementation has proven effective in treating diabetes [11]. Benfotiamine, a metabolite of thiamine, reduces neuropathic pain in diabetes [12].

    3- Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin):
    Metformin, a drug used for treating diabetes, induce vitamin B12 malabsorption and increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency [13, 14]. Vitamin B12 shows significant symptomatic improvement in patients with severe diabetic neuropathy [15].
    Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in older people and vegans. Animal products including fish, meat poultry, eggs, and dairy products are rich in vitamin B12.

    4- Magnesium:
    Magnesium deficiency is associated with chronic diseases, one of them is diabetes [16]. Elderly and young teens are more at risk of magnesium deficiency [17]. In type II diabetes, magnesium may help reduce glucose intolerance [18].
     Magnesium-rich foods like whole grains, nuts, and green leafy vegetables are recommended [19]. 

    5- Iodine:
    Iodine is essential for growth and development. The thyroid gland is largely dependent on iodine for its functions [20]. Iodine deficiency can cause weight gain, fatigue, dry and flaky skin, and more.
     A significant increase incidence of diabetes is seen in patients with hyperthyroidism compared to normal individuals [21].

    6- Zinc:
    Zinc plays an important role in the synthesis, storage, and secretion of insulin [22], a hormone that regulates our blood glucose levels [23]. Diabetes is responsible for the increased urinary loss of zinc and disturbs body homeostasis [24]. 
    Zinc reduces the risk of type II diabetes in zinc-deficient groups [25, 26]. Zinc deficiency leads to aggravated glucose intolerance [27], which is the main cause of type II diabetes.

    Diabetes is a chronic disease and deficiency of important minerals and vitamins may occur in long run. This deficiency is more evident in people who don’t eat a well-balanced diet or elderly. Multivitamin supplementation is required.
     
    References:
    1. McDowell, L.R., Vitamins in animal and human nutrition. 2008: John Wiley & Sons.
    2. Mooradian, A.D., and J.E. Morley, Micronutrient status in diabetes mellitus. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1987. 45(5): p. 877-895.
    3. Mooradian, A.D., et al., Selected Vitamins and Minerals in Diabetes. 1994. 17(5): p. 464-479.
    4. Ceriello, A. and E. Motz, Is Oxidative Stress the Pathogenic Mechanism Underlying Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease? The Common Soil Hypothesis Revisited. 2004. 24(5): p. 816-823.
    5. Martini, L.A., A.S. Catania, and S.R. Ferreira, Role of vitamins and minerals in prevention and management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrition Reviews, 2010. 68(6): p. 341-354.
    6. Holick, M.F.J.N.E.J.o.M., Vitamin D deficiency. 2007. 357(3): p. 266-281.
    7. Munger, K.L., et al., Preclinical serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of type 1 diabetes in a cohort of US military personnel. 2013. 177(5): p. 411-419.
    8. Dalgård, C., et al., Vitamin D status in relation to glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes in septuagenarians. 2011. 34(6): p. 1284-1288.
    9. Lee, S., et al., 1, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and pancreatic beta-cell function: vitamin D receptors, gene expression, and insulin secretion. 1994. 134(4): p. 1602-1610.
    10. Page, G., D. Laight, and M.J.I.j.o.c.p. Cummings, Thiamine deficiency in diabetes mellitus and the impact of thiamine replacement on glucose metabolism and vascular disease. 2011. 65(6): p. 684-690.
    11. Thornalley, P.J.J.C.d.r., The potential role of thiamine (vitamin B1) in diabetic complications. 2005. 1(3): p. 287-298.
    12. Haupt, E., H. Ledermann, and W. Köpcke, Benfotiamine in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy--a three-week randomized, controlled pilot study (BEDIP study). Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2005. 43(2): p. 71-7.
    13. De Jager, J., et al., Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency: randomised placebo controlled trial. 2010. 340.
    14. Bauman, W.A., et al., Increased intake of calcium reverses vitamin B12 malabsorption induced by metformin. 2000. 23(9): p. 1227-1231.
    15. Kibirige, D., R.J.J.o.D. Mwebaze, and M. Disorders, Vitamin B12 deficiency among patients with diabetes mellitus: is routine screening and supplementation justified? 2013. 12(1): p. 17.
    16. Sales, C.H. and L.d.F.C.J.C.n. Pedrosa, Magnesium and diabetes mellitus: their relation. 2006. 25(4): p. 554-562.
    17. current, N.I.o.H.J.V., Magnesium fact sheet for health professionals. 2016. 27.
    18. de Valk, H.W.J.T.N.j.o.m., Magnesium in diabetes mellitus. 1999. 54(4): p. 139-146.
    19. Lopez-Ridaura, R., et al., Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. 2004. 27(1): p. 134-140.
    20. Li, M., et al., Re-emergence of iodine deficiency in Australia. 2001. 10(3): p. 200-203.
    21. Perlman, Familial incidence of diabetes in hyperthyroidism. 1961. 55(5): p. 796-799.
    22. Chausmer, A.B., Zinc, Insulin and Diabetes. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1998. 17(2): p. 109-115.
    23. Halban, Structural domains and molecular lifestyles of insulin and its precursors in the pancreatic beta cell. 1991. 34(11): p. 767-778.
    24. Jansen, J., W. Karges, and L.J.T.J.o.n.b. Rink, Zinc and diabetes—clinical links and molecular mechanisms. 2009. 20(6): p. 399-417.
    26. Chen, M.-D., et al., Zinc effects on hyperglycemia and hypoleptinemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. 2000. 32(03): p. 107-109.
    27. Raz, I., D. Karsai, and M. Katz, The influence of zinc supplementation on glucose homeostasis in NIDDM. Diabetes Res, 1989. 11(2): p. 73-9.