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Diet and Weight loss

    What is Obesity Risk and what is the perfect Treatment of Obesity?

    Aug 17, 2020

     

    What is obesity?

    According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), obesity is defined, having BMI equal to or greater than 30. BMI (Body Mass Index) is a calculation to measure body size by using a person’s weight and height.

    Obesity prevails internationally. In 2017-2018, CDC had estimated that 42.4% of 20 years and older Americans have obesity[1]
     

    What is childhood obesity?

    The prevalence of obesity in childhood is increasing internationally[2]. It is about 13.9 % in 2-5 years old, 18.4% among 6-11 years old, and 20.6% among 12-19 years old child[3].
    CDC defined obese children are those who are above the 95 percentile of BMI and those between 85-95 percentile as “at risk for overweight”[4].  
     
    Childhood obesity is a serious health issue. Children and teens are not only at risk for several chronic diseases, but it can also affect their psychological health[5] and have low self-esteem and poor self-image. 


    Complications of obesity:

    • Obesity is linked to many other health complications. If not treated, they can lead to life-threatening conditions. Complications of obesity include:
      • Type II diabetes (increase insulin resistance)
    • • Heart diseases 
    • • High blood pressure
    •  
    • • Fatty liver disease
    •  
    • • Breathing problems
    •  
    • • High cholesterol levels
    •  
    • • infertility

      what is Obesity risks ?



    Unhealthy lifestyle habits
    Lack of physical activity, unhealthy eating habits, not getting enough sleep, and stress can increase the risk of obesity[6].
     
    Family history and genetics
    Genes also make one, more susceptible to gain weight[7]. 
     
    Gender
    Both genders are at risk of weight gain, but overall women are more obese than men [8]. Obese women are at high risk of getting gestational diabetes during pregnancy[9]
     
    Psychological and other factors:
    A potential association between depression and obesity has been reported[10]. Medicines such as steroids, birth control pills, and antidepressants increase the risk of weight gain.


    Fibers and vitamins for obesity:

    Fibers:
    A Fiber has low caloric availability and gut-filling properties[11]. A hypocaloric diet with whole-grain cereals (rich in fiber) is effective for maintaining overall health during weight loss[12].
    Sufficient fiber in the diet helps to prevent excessive food intake and fat accumulation by slowing the rate of ingestion of food, promoting intestinal satiety, and decreasing the caloric density of the diet.
     
    Vitamin deficiency may contribute to fat deposition and chronic inflammation[13]. The deficiency of certain vitamins is seen in obese children as compared to children with normal weight[14].
     
    Vitamin B complex:
    Vitamin B complex contains eight vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid, and Cobalamin)[15]. All B vitamins are essential for maintaining the normal metabolism of the body.
     
    Deficiencies of these result in impaired metabolism, and it becomes more difficult to lose weight.
    Source: Meat, whole grains, milk, potatoes, bananas, and eggs are a great source of Vitamin B complex.
     
    Vitamin D:
    Vitamin D is important for the immune system. Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin upon sun exposure. 
    Experts found low levels of Vitamin D in obese people. However, its exact role in weight loss is unclear[16]. 
    People who take vitamin D and calcium supplement lost more stomach fat than people not having supplement[17].
     
    References:
    1. Control, C.f.D., and Prevention, About adult BMI. 2015.
    2. Deckelbaum, R.J. and C.L. Williams, Childhood Obesity: The Health Issue. 2001. 9(S11): p. 239S-243S.
    3. Control, C.f.D. and P.J.A.a.h.c.g.h.o.f.h.L.a. April, Childhood obesity facts. 2015. 2016. 15.
    4. Flegal, K.M., R. Wei, and C.J.T.A.j.o.c.n. Ogden, Weight-for-stature compared with body mass index–for-age growth charts for the United States from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2002. 75(4): p. 761-766.
    5. Dehghan, M., N. Akhtar-Danesh, and A.T.J.N.j. Merchant, Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention. 2005. 4(1): p. 24.
    6. Heart, N., et al., The practical guide: identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults. 2000: The Institute.
    7. Friedman, J.M.J.N.m., Modern science versus the stigma of obesity. 2004. 10(6): p. 563-569.
    8. Kanter, R. and B.J.A.i.n. Caballero, Global gender disparities in obesity: a review. 2012. 3(4): p. 491-498.
    9. Status, I.o.M.S.o.N., et al., Nutrition during pregnancy: part I, weight gain: part II, nutrient supplements. 1990: Natl Academy Pr.
    10. Van Itallie, T.B.J.T.A.j.o.c.n., Dietary fiber and obesity. 1978. 31(10): p. S43-S52.
    11. Ali, R., et al., Dietary fiber and obesity, in Dietary fiber in health and disease. 1982, Springer. p. 139-149.
    12. Melanson, K.J., et al., Consumption of whole-grain cereals during weight loss: effects on dietary quality, dietary fiber, magnesium, vitamin B-6, and obesity. 2006. 106(9): p. 1380-1388.
    13. García, O.P., K.Z. Long, and J.L.J.N.r. Rosado, Impact of micronutrient deficiencies on obesity. 2009. 67(10): p. 559-572.
    14. Aeberli, I., R.F. Hurrell, and M.B.J.I.j.o.o. Zimmermann, Overweight children have higher circulating hepcidin concentrations and lower iron status but have dietary iron intakes and bioavailability comparable with normal weight children. 2009. 33(10): p. 1111-1117.
    15. Council, N.R., Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. 1989.
    16. Vanlint, S.J.N., Vitamin D and obesity. 2013. 5(3): p. 949-956.
    17. Rosenblum, J.L., et al., Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased abdominal visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults. 2012. 95(1): p. 101-108.